Sports and Fitness Support: Enhancing Performance
Other Proposed Natural Treatments
- Antioxidant Vitamins
- Branched-chain Amino Acids (BCAAs)
- Coenzyme Q 10
- Cystoseira canariensis
- Deer Antler
- Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
- Dihydroxyacetone Pyruvate (DHAP)
- Gamma Oryzanol
- Human Growth Hormone Enhancers
- Lipoic Acid
- Low Glycemic Index Diet
- Ma Huang (Ephedra)
- Medium-Chain Triglycerides (MCTs)
- Ornithine Alpha-Ketoglutarate (OKG)
- Panax notoginseng
- Pantothenic Acid/Pantethine
- Rhodiola rosea
- Tribulus terrestris
- Whey Protein
Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
Other Proposed Natural Treatments
Branched-chain Amino Acids: Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine
Other Amino Acids
Coenzyme Q 10
Stimulants: Ma Huang and Caffeine
Not Recommended Treatments
1 Leenders N, Sherman WM, Lamb DR, et al. Creatine supplementation and swimming performance. Int J Sport Nutr. 1999;9:251-262.
2 Balsom PD, Ekblom B, Soderlund K, et al. Creatine supplementation and dynamic high-intensity intermittent exercise. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1993;3:143-149.
3 Mujika I, Padilla S. Creatine supplementation as an ergogenic aid for sports performance in highly trained athletes: a critical review. Int J Sports Med. 1997;18:491-496.
4 Williams MH, Branch JD. Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: an update. J Am Coll Nutr. 1998;17:216-234.
5 Mujika I, Padilla S, Ibanez J, et al. Creatine supplementation and sprint performance in soccer players. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32:518-525.
6 Gilliam JD, Hohzorn C, Martin D, et al. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on isokinetic torque production. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32:993-996.
7 Finn JP, Ebert TR, Withers RT, et al. Effect of creatine supplementation on metabolism and performance in humans during intermittent sprint cycling. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2001;84:238-243.
8 Balsom PD, Harridge SDR, Soderlund K, et al. Creatine supplementation per se does not enhance endurance exercise performance. Acta Physiol Scand. 1993;149:521-523.
9 Burke LM, Pyne DB, Telford RD. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on single-effort sprint performance in elite swimmers. Int J Sport Nutr. 1996;6:222-233.
10 Mujika I, Chatard JK, Lacoste L, et al. Creatine supplementation does not improve sprint performance in competitive swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28:1435-1441.
11 Cooke WH, Grandjean PW, Barnes WS. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on power output and fatigue during bicycle ergometry. J Appl Physiol. 1995;78:670-673.
12 Volek JS, Kraemer WJ, Bush JA, et al. Creatine supplementation enhances muscular performance during high-intensity resistance exercise. J Am Diet Assoc. 1997;97:765-770.
13 Bemben MG, Bemben DA, Loftiss DD, et al. Creatine supplementation during resistance training in college football athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33:1667-1673.
14 Kreider RB. Dietary supplements and the promotion of muscle growth with resistance exercise. Sports Med. 1999;27:97-110.
15 Slater G, Jenkins D. Beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyric acid (HMB) supplementation and the promotion of muscle growth and strength. Sports Med. 2000;30:105-116.
16 Ostaszewski P, Kostiuk S, Balasinska B, et al. The effect of leucine metabolite 3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyrate (HMB) on muscle protein synthesis and protein breakdown in chick and rat muscle [abstract]. J Anim Sci. 1996;74(suppl 1):138.
17 Nissen S, Sharp R, Ray M, et al. Effect of leucine metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate on muscle metabolism during resistance-exercise training. J Appl Physiol. 1996;81:2095-2104.
18 Nissen S, Panton L, Fuller J, et al. Effect of feeding beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on body composition and strength of women [abstract]. FASEB J. 1997;11:A150.
19 Panton LB, Rathmacher JA, Baier S, et al. Nutritional supplementation of the leucine metabolite beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) during resistance training. Nutrition. 2000;16:734-739.
20 Gallagher PM, Carrithers JA, Godard MP, et al. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate ingestion, Part I: effects on strength and fat free mass. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000; 32:2109-2115.
21 Vukovich MD, Stubbs NB, Bohlken RM. Body composition in 70-year-old adults responds to dietary beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate similarly to that of young adults. J Nutr. 2001;131:2049-2052.
22 Thom E, Wadstein J, Gudmundsen O. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat in healthy exercising humans. J Int Med Res. 2001;29:392-396.
23 Kicman AT, Bassindale T, Cowan DA, et al. Effect of androstenedione ingestion on plasma testosterone in young women; a dietary supplement with potential health risks. Clin Chem. 2003;49:167-169.
24 Cherdrungsi P, Rungroeng K. Effects of standardized ginseng extract and exercise training on aerobic and anaerobic capacities in humans. Korean J Ginseng Sci. 1995;19:93-100.
25 Forgo I. Effect of drugs on physical exertion and the hormonal system of athlete [translated from German]. MMW Munch Med Wochenschr. 1983;125:822-824.
26 McNaughton LG, Egan G, Caelli G. A comparison of Chinese and Russian ginseng as ergogenic aids to improve various facets of physical fitness. Int J Clin Nutr Rev. 1989;9:32-35.
27 Forgo I, Kayasseh L, Staub JJ. Effect of a standardized ginseng extract on general well-being, reaction time, lung function and gonadal hormones [translated from German]. Med Welt. 1981;32:751-756.
28 Engles HJ, Wirth JC. No ergogenic effects of ginseng ( Panax ginseng ) during graded maximal aerobic exercise. J Am Diet Assoc. 1997;97:1110-1115.
29 Engels HJ, Said JM, Wirth JC, et al. Failure of chronic ginseng supplementation to affect work performance and energy metabolism in healthy adult females. Nutr Res. 1996;16:1295-1305.
30 Morris AC, Jacobs I, McLellan TM, et al. No ergogenic effect of ginseng ingestion. Int J Sport Nutr. 1996;6:263-271.
31 Teves MA, Wright JE, Welch MJ, et. al. Effects of ginseng on repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1983;15:162.
32 Allen JD, McLung J, Nelson AG, et al. Ginseng supplementation does not enhance healthy young adults' peak aerobic exercise performance. J Am Coll Nutr. 1998;17:462-466.
33 Lifton B, Otto RM, Wygand J. The effect of ginseng on acute maximal aerobic exercise [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997;29(suppl 5):S249.
34 Kolokouri I, Englels HJ, Cieslak T, et al. Effect of chronic ginseng supplementation on short duration, supramaximal exercise test performance [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31(suppl 5):S117.
35 Engels HJ, Kolokouri I, Cieslak TJ 2nd, et al. Effects of ginseng supplementation on supramaximal exercise performance and short-term recovery. J Strength Conditioning Res. 2001;15:290-295.
36 Gaffney BT, Hugel HM, Rich PA. The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes. Life Sci. 2001;70:431-442.
37 Dowling EA, Redondo DR, Branch JD, et al. Effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus on submaximal and maximal exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28:482-489.
38 Eschbach LF, Webster MJ, Boyd JC, et al. The effect of Siberian ginseng ( Eleutherococcus senticosus ) on substrate utilization and performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000;10:444-451.
39 Bach AC, Babayan VK. Medium-chain triglycerides: an update. Am J Clin Nutr. 1982;36:950-962.
40 Jeukendrup AE, Saris WHM, Schrauwen P, et al. Oxidation of orally ingested medium chain triglyceride (MCT) during prolonged exercise [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995;27(suppl 5):S101.
41 Anderson O. Putting medium-chain triglycerides in your sports drink can increase your endurance. Nutrition Science News. 1994;6:6-7.
42 Misell LM, Lagomarcino ND, Schuster V, et al. Chronic medium-chain triacylglycerol consumption and endurance performance in trained runners. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2001;41:210-215.
43 Satabin P, Portero P, Defer G, et al. Metabolic and hormonal responses to lipid and carbohydrate diets during exercise in man. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1987;19:218-223.
44 Van Zyl CG, Lambert EV, Hawley JA, et al. Effects of medium-chain triglyceride ingestion on fuel metabolism and cycling performance. J Appl Physiol. 1996;80:2217-2225.
45 Hinton PS, Giordano C, Brownlie T, et al. Iron supplementation improves endurance after training in iron-depleted, nonanemic women. J Appl Physiol. 2000;88:1103-1111.
46 Friedmann B, Weller E, Mairbaurl H, et al. Effects of iron repletion on blood volume and performance capacity in young athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33:741-746.
47 Antonio J, Sanders MS, Van Gammeren D. The effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in active men and women. Nutrition. 2001;17:243-247.
48 Buckley JD, Abbott MJ, Brinkworth GD, et al. Bovine colostrum supplementation during endurance running training improves recovery, but not performance. J Sci Med Sport. 2002;5:65-79.
49 Stanko RT, Reynolds HR, Hoyson R, et al. Pyruvate supplementation of a low-cholesterol, low-fat diet: effects on plasma lipid concentrations and body composition in hyperlipidemic patients. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59:423-427.
50 Stanko RT, Arch JE. Inhibition of regain in body weight and fat with addition of 3-carbon compounds to the diet with hyperenergetic refeeding after weight reduction. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996;20:925-930.
51 Stanko RT, Tietze DL, Arch JE. Body composition, energy utilization, and nitrogen metabolism with a severely restricted diet supplemented with dihydroxyacetone and pyruvate. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:771-776.
52 Kalman D, Colker CM, Wilets I, et al. The effects of pyruvate supplementation on body composition in overweight individuals. Nutrition. 1999;15:337-340.
53 Ivy JL. Effect of pyruvate and dihydroxyacetone on metabolism and aerobic endurance capacity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998;30:837-843.
54 Stanko RT, Robertson RJ, Galbreath RW, et al. Enhanced leg exercise endurance with a high-carbohydrate diet and dihydroxyacetone and pyruvate. J Appl Physiol. 1990;69:1651-1656.
55 Stanko RT, Robertson RJ, Spina RJ, et al. Enhancement of arm exercise endurance capacity with dihydroxyacetone and pyruvate. J Appl Physiol. 1990;68:119-124.
56 Morrison MA, Spriet LL, Dyck DJ. Pyruvate ingestion for 7 days does not improve aerobic performance in well-trained individuals. J Appl Physiol. 2000;89:549-556.
57 Saint-John M, McNaughton L. Octacosanol ingestion and its effects on metabolic responses to submaximal cycle ergometry, reaction time and chest and grip strength. Int Clin Nutr Rev. 1986;6:81-87.
58 Fahey TD, Pearl M. Hormonal effects of phosphatidylserine during 2 weeks of intense training [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998;30(suppl 5).
59 Monteleone P, Maj M, Beinat L, et al. Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men. Eur J Clin Pharm. 1992;43:385-388.
60 Fahey TD, Pearl MS. The hormonal and perceptive effects of phosphatidylserine administration during two weeks of resistive exercise-induced overtraining. Biol Sport. 1998;15:135-144.
61 Wagenmakers AJM. Amino acid metabolism, muscular fatigue and muscle wasting. Speculations on adaptations at high altitude. Int J Sports Med. 1992;13:S110-S113.
62 Kelly GS. Sports nutrition: a review of selected nutritional supplements for bodybuilders and strength athletes. Alt Med Rev. 1997;2:184-201.
63 Bigard AX, Lavier P, Ullmann L, et al. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during repeated prolonged skiing exercises at altitude. Int J Sport Nutr. 1996;6:295-306.
64 Struder HK, Hollmann W, Platen P, et al. Influence of paroxetine, branched-chain amino acids and tyrosine on neuroendocrine system responses and fatigue in humans. Horm Metab Res. 1998;30:188-194.
65 Davis JM, Welsh RS, De Volve KL, et al. Effects of branched-chain amino acids and carbohydrate on fatigue during intermittent, high-intensity running. Int J Sports Med. 1999;20:309-314.
66 Mero A. Leucine supplementation and intensive training. Sports Med. 1999;27:347-358.
67 van Hall G, Raaymakers JS, Saris WH, et al. Ingestion of branched-chain amino acids and tryptophan during sustained exercise in man: failure to affect performance. J Physiol (Lond). 1995;486:789-794.
68 Williams MH. Facts and fallacies of purported ergogenic amino acid supplements. Clin Sports Med. 1999;18:633-649.
69 Wagenmakers AJ. Amino acid supplements to improve athletic performance. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 1999;2:539-544.
70 Yaspelkis BB, Ivy JL. The effect of a carbohydrate-arginine supplement on postexercise carbohydrate metabolism. Int J Sport Nutr. 1999;9:241-250.
71 Candow DG, Chilibeck PD, Burke DG, et al. Effect of glutamine supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2001;86:142-149.
72 Antonio J, Sanders MS, Kalman D, et al. The effects of high-dose glutamine ingestion on weightlifting performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2002;16:157-160.
73 Clarkson PM. Effects of exercise on chromium levels. Is supplementation required? Sports Med. 1997;23:341-349.
74 Joseph LJ, Farrell PA, Davey SL, et al. Effect of resistance training with or without chromium picolinate supplementation on glucose metabolism in older men and women. Metabolism. 1999;48:546-553.
75 Lefavi RG, Anderson RA, Keith RE, et al. Efficacy of chromium supplementation in athletes: emphasis on anabolism. Int J Sport Nutr. 1992;2:111-122.
76 Clancy SP, Clarkson PM, DeCheke ME, et al. Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition, strength, and urinary chromium loss in football players. Int J Sport Nutr. 1994;4:142-153.
77 Hallmark MA, Reynolds TH, DeSouza CA, et al. Effects of chromium and resistive training on muscle strength and body composition. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28:139-144.
78 Campbell WW, Joseph LJ, Davey SL, et al. Effects of resistance training and chromium picolinate on body composition and skeletal muscle in older men. J Appl Physiol. 1999;86:29-39.
79 Walker LS, Bemben MG, Bemben DA, et al. Chromium picolinate effects on body composition and muscular performance in wrestlers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998;30:1730-1737.
80 Lukaski HC, Bolonchuk WW, Siders WA, et al. Chromium supplementation and resistance training: effects on body composition, strength and trace element status of men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63:954-965.
81 Davis JM, Welsh RS, Alerson NA. Effects of carbohydrate and chromium ingestion during intermittent high-intensity exercise to fatigue. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000;10:476-485.
82 Livolsi JM, Adams GM, Laguna PL. The effect of chromium picolinate on muscular strength and body composition in women athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2001;15:161-166.
83 Zuliani U, Bonetti A, Campana M, et al. The influence of ubiquinone (CoQ 10 ) on the metabolic response to work. J Sports Med. 1989;29:57-62.
84 Weston SB, Zhou S, Weatherby RP, et al. Does exogenous coenzyme Q 10 affect aerobic capacity in endurance athletes? Int J Sport Nutr. 1997;7:197-206.
85 Ylikoski T, Piirainen J, Hanninen O, et al. The effect of coenzyme Q 10 on the exercise performance of cross-country skiers. Mol Aspects Med. 1997;18 (suppl):S283-S290.
86 Braun B, Clarkson PM, Freedson PS, et al. Effects of coenzyme Q 10 supplementation on exercise performance, VO2max, and lipid peroxidation in trained cyclists. Int J Sport Nutr. 1991;1:353-365.
87 Malm C, Svensson M, Ekblom B, et al. Effects of ubiquinone-10 supplementation and high intensity training on physical performance in humans. Acta Physiol Scand. 1997;161:379-384.
88 Snider IP, Bazzarre TL, Murdoch SD, et al. Effects of coenzyme athletic performance system as an ergogenic aid on endurance performance to exhaustion. Int J Sport Nutr. 1992;2:272-286.
89 Porter DA, Costill DL, Zachwieja JJ, et al. The effect of oral coenzyme Q 10 on the exercise tolerance of middle-aged, untrained men. Int J Sports Med. 1995;16:421-427.
90 Starling RD, Trappe TA, Short KR, et al. Effect of inosine supplementation on aerobic and anaerobic cycling performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28:1193-1198.
91 Dragan I, Baroga M, Eremia N, et al. Studies regarding some effects of inosine in elite weightlifters. Rom J Physiol. 1993;30:47-50.
92 Williams MH, Kreider RB, Hunter DW, et al. Effect of inosine supplementation on 3-mile treadmill run performance and VO2 peak. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990;22:517-522.
93 Rosenbloom C, Millard-Stafford M, Lathrop J, et al. Contemporary ergogenic aids used by strength/power athletes. J Am Diet Assoc. 1992;92:1264-1266.
94 McNaughton L, Dalton B, and Tarr J. Inosine supplementation has no effect on aerobic or anaerobic cycling performance. Int J Sport Nutr. 1999;9:333-344.
95 Zollner N, Reiter S, Gross M. Myoadenylate deaminase deficiency successful symptomatic therapy by high dose oral administration of ribose. Klin Wochenschr. 1986;64:1281-1290.
96 Wagner DR, Gresser U, Zollner N. Effects of oral ribose on muscle metabolism during bicycle ergometer in AMPD-deficient patients. Ann Nutr Metab. 1991;35:297-302.
97 Op 't Eijnde B, Van Leemputte M, Brouns F, et al. No effects of oral ribose supplementation on repeated maximal exercise and de novo ATP resynthesis. J Appl Physiol. 2001;91:2275-2281.
98 Bonner B, et al. Influence of ferulate supplementation on postexercise stress hormone levels after repeated exercise stress. J Appl Sports Sci Res. 1990;4:110.
99 Bucci LR, et al. Effect of ferulate on strength and body composition of weightlifters. J Appl Sports Sci Res. 1990;4:110.
100 Fry AC, Bonner E, Lewis DL, et al. The effects of gamma-oryzanol supplementation during resistance exercise training. Int J Sport Nutr. 1997;7:318-329.
101 Gray ME, Titlow LW. The effect of pangamic acid on maximal treadmill performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1982;14:424-427.
102 Adimoelja A. Phytochemicals and the breakthrough of traditional herbs in the management of sexual dysfunctions. Int J Androl. 2000;23:82-84.
103 Antonio J, Uelmen J, Rodriguez R, et al. The effects of Tribulus terrestris on body composition and exercise performance in resistance-trained males. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000;10:208-215.
104 Kreider RB. Phosphate loading and exercise performance. J Appl Nutr. 1992;44:29-49.
105 Tremblay MS, Galloway SD, Sexsmith JR. Ergogenic effects of phosphate loading: physiological fact or methodological fiction? Can J Appl Physiol. 1994;19:1-11.
106 Regelson W, Kalimi M. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)—the multifunctional steroid. II. Effects on the CNS, cell proliferation, metabolic and vascular, clinical, and other effects. Mechanism of action? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994;719:564-575.
107 Regelson W, Loria R, Kalimi M. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)—the "Mother Steroid." I. Immunologic action. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994;719:553-563.
108 Brown GA, Vukovich MD, Sharp RL, et al. Effect of oral DHEA on serum testosterone and adaptations to resistance training in young men. J Appl Physiol. 1999;87:2274-2283.
109 Wallace MB, Lim J, Cutler A, et al. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone vs. androstenedione supplementation in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31:1788-1792.
110 Morales AJ, Haubrich RH, Hwang JY, et al. The effect of six months treatment with a 100 mg daily dose of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on circulating sex steroids, body composition and muscle strength in age-advanced men and women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1998;49:421-432.
111 Timmons BW, Newhouse IJ, Thayer RE, et al. The efficacy of SPORT™ as a dietary supplement on performance and recovery in trained athletes. Can J Appl Physiol. 2000;25:55-67.
112 Dodd SL, Herb RA, Powers SK, et al. Caffeine and exercise performance. An update. Sports Med. 1993;15:14-23.
113 Fawcett JP, Farquhar SJ, Walker RJ, et al. The effect of oral vanadyl sulfate on body composition and performance in weight-training athletes. Int J Sport Nutr. 1996;6:382-390.
114 Kreider RB. Dietary supplements and the promotion of muscle growth with resistance exercise. Sports Med. 1999;27:97-110.
115 Ferrando AA, Green NR. The effect of boron supplementation on lean body mass, plasma testosterone levels, and strength in male bodybuilders. Int J Sport Nutr. 1993;3:140-149.
116 Nielsen FH, Hunt CD, Mullen LM, et al. Effect of dietary boron on mineral, estrogen, and testosterone metabolism in postmenopausal women. FASEB J. 1987;1:394-397.
117 Naghii MR, Samman S. The effect of boron supplementation on its urinary excretion and selected cardiovascular risk factors in healthy male subjects. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1997;56:273-286.
118 Naghii MR. The significance of dietary boron, with particular reference to athletes. Nutr Health. 1999;13:31-37.
119 Leder BZ, Longcope C, Catlin DH, et al. Oral androstenedione administration and serum testosterone concentrations in young men. JAMA. 2000;283:779-782.
120 Brown GA, Vukovich MD, Martini ER, et al. Endocrine responses to chronic androstenedione intake in 30- to 56-year-old men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85:4074-4080.
121 King DS, Sharp RL, Vukovich MD, et al. Effect of oral androstenedione on serum testosterone and adaptations to resistance training in young men: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1999;281:2020-2028.
122 Ballantyne CS, Phillips SM, MacDonald JR, et al. The acute effects of androstenedione supplementation in healthy young males. Can J Appl Physiol. 2000;25:68-78.
123 Broeder CE, Quindry J, Brittingham K, et al. The andro project: physiological and hormonal influences of androstenedione supplementation in men 35 to 65 years old participating in a high-intensity resistance training program. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:3093-3104.
124 Wallace MB, Lim J, Cutler A, et al. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone vs. androstenedione supplementation in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31:1788-1792.
125 Eijnde BO, Van Leemputte M, Goris M, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation and exercise training on fitness in males 55 to 75 years old. J Appl Physiol. 2003;95:818-828.
126 Engels HJ, Fahlman MM, Wirth JC. Effects of Ginseng on secretory IgA, performance, and recovery from interval exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35:690-696.
127 Brutsaert TD, Hernandez-Cordero S, Rivera J, et al. Iron supplementation improves progressive fatigue resistance during dynamic knee extensor exercise in iron-depleted, nonanemic women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:441-448.
128 Rowland TW, Deisroth MB, Green GM, Kelleher JF. The effect of iron therapy on the exercise capacity of nonanemic iron-deficient adolescent runners. Am J Dis Child. 1988;142:165-169.
129 Celsing F, Blomstrand E, Werner B, et al. Effects of iron deficiency on endurance and muscle enzyme activity in man. Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1986;18:156-161.
130 Klingshirn LA, Pate RR, Bourque SP, et al. Effect of iron supplementation on endurance capacity in iron-depleted female runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992;24:819-824.
131 LaManca JJ, Haymes EM. Effects of iron repletion on VO2max, endurance, and blood lactate in women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993;25:1386-1392.
132 Hofman Z, Smeets R, Verlaan G, et al. The effect of bovine colostrum supplementation on exercise performance in elite field hockey players. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2002;12:461-469.
133 Buckley JD. Bovine colostrum: Does it improve athletic performance? Nutrition. 2002;18:776-777.
134 Mero A, Kahkonen J, Nykanen T, et al. IGF-I, IgA, and IgG responses to bovine colostrum supplementation during training. J Appl Physiol. 2002;93:732-739.
135 Mero A, Miikkulainen H, Riski J, et al. Effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on serum IGF-I, IgG, hormone, and saliva IgA during training. J Appl Physiol. 1997;83:1144-1151.
136 Berardi JM, Ziegenfuss TN. Effects of ribose supplementation on repeated sprint performance in men. J Strength Cond Res. 2003;17:47-52.
137 Kreider RB, Melton C, Greenwood M, et al. Effects of oral d-ribose supplementation on anaerobic capacity and selected metabolic markers in healthy males. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003;13:87-96.
138 Shekelle PG, Hardy ML, Morton SC, et al. Efficacy and safety of ephedra and ephedrine for weight loss and athletic performance: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2003;289:1537-1545.
139 Ehrlich D, Haber P. Influence of acupuncture on physical performance capacity and haemodynamic parameters. Int J Sport Med. 1992;13:486-491.
140 Purdy Lloyd KL, Wasmund W, Smith L, et al. Clinical effects of a dietary antioxidant silicate supplement, Microhydrin®, on cardiovascular responses to exercise. J Med Food. 2001;4:151-159.
141 Medved I, Brown MJ, Bjorksten AR, et al. N-acetylcysteine infusion alters blood redox status but not time to fatigue during intense exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2003;94:1572-1582.
142 Leder BZ, Leblanc KM, Longcope C, et al. Effects of oral androstenedione administration on serum testosterone and estradiol levels in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:5449-5454.
143 Glaister M, Lockey RA, Abraham CS, et al. Creatine supplementation and multiple sprint running performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20:273-277.
144 Cornish SM, Chilibeck PD, Burke DG. The effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation on sprint skating in ice-hockey players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2006;46:90-98.
145 Theodorou AS, Havenetidis K, Zanker CL, et al. Effects of acute creatine loading with or without carbohydrate on repeated bouts of maximal swimming in high-performance swimmers. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19:265-269.
146 Pluim BM, Ferrauti A, Broekhof F, et al. The effects of creatine supplementation on selected factors of tennis specific training. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40:507-11;discussion 511-512.
147 Astorino TA, Marrocco AC, Gross SM, et al. Is running performance enhanced with creatine serum ingestion? J. Strength Cond Res. 2005;19:730-734.
148 Peyrebrune MC, Stokes K, Hall GM, et al. Effect of creatine supplementation on training for competition in elite swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37:2140-2147.
149 Branch JD. Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance: a meta-analysis. Int JSport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003;13:198-226.
150 Chilibeck PD, Stride D, Farthing JP, et al. Effect of creatine ingestion after exercise on muscle thickness in males and females. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36:1781-1788.
151 Eckerson JM, Stout JR, Moore GA, et al. Effect of creatine phosphate supplementation on anaerobic working capacity and body weight after two and six days of loading in men and women. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19:756-763
152 Koh-Banerjee PK, Ferreira MP, Greenwood M, et al. Effects of calcium pyruvate supplementation during training on body composition, exercise capacity, and metabolic responses to exercise. Nutrition. 2005;21:312-319.
153 Kingsley MI, Wadsworth D, Kilduff LP, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine on oxidative stress following intermittent running. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37:1300-1306.
154 Kingsley MI, Miller M, Kilduff LP, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine on exercise capacity during cycling in active males. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38:64-71.
155 Crowe MJ, Weatherson JN, Bowden BF, et al. Effects of dietary leucine supplementation on exercise performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2005 Oct 29. [Epub ahead of print]
156 Tipton KD, Elliott TA, Cree MG, et al. Ingestion of casein and whey proteins result in muscle anabolism after resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36:2073-2081.
157 Zhou S, Zhang Y, Davie A, et al. Muscle and plasma coenzyme Q 10 concentration, aerobic power and exercise economy of healthy men in response to four weeks of supplementation. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2005;45:337-346.
158 Kerksick C, Rasmussen C, Bowden R, et al. Effects of ribose supplementation prior to and during intense exercise on anaerobic capacity and metabolic markers. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006;15:653-664.
159 Dunne L, Worley S, Macknin M, et al. Ribose versus dextrose supplementation, association with rowing performance: a double-blind study. Clin J Sport Med. 2005;16:68-71
160 Dunne L, Worley S, Macknin M, et al. Ribose Versus Dextrose Supplementation, Association With Rowing Performance: A Double-Blind Study. Clin J Sport Med. 2005;16:68-71.
161 Villareal D, Holloszy JO. DHEA Enhances Effects of Weight Training on Muscle Mass and Strength in Elderly Women and Men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jun 20. [Epub ahead of print]
162 De Bock K, Eijnde BO, Ramaekers M, et al. Acute rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2004;14:298-307.
163 Colson SN, Wyatt FB, Johnston DL, et al. Cordyceps sinensis- and rhodiola rosea-based supplementation in male cyclists and its effect on muscle tissue oxygen saturation. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19:358-363.
164 Liang MT, Podolka TD, Chuang WJ, et al. Panax notoginseng supplementation enhances physical performance during endurance exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19:108-114.
165 Buckley JD, Burgess S, Murphy KJ, et al. Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular risk, exercise performance and recovery in Australian Football League (AFL) players. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2005;14(suppl)S57.
166 Bloomer RJ, Fry A, Schilling B, et al. Astaxanthin supplementation does not attenuate muscle injury following eccentric exercise in resistance-trained men. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005;15:401-412.
167 Sutton EE, Coill MR, Deuster PA, et al. Ingestion of tyrosine: effects on endurance, muscle strength, and anaerobic performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005;15:173-85.
168 Kok L, Kreijkamp-Kaspers S, Grobbee DE, et al. Soy isoflavones, body composition, and physical performance. Maturitas. 2005;52:102-110.
169 Hickner RC, Tanner CJ, Evans CA, et al. L-citrulline reduces time to exhaustion and insulin response to a graded exercise test. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38:660-666.
170 Fry AC, Bloomer RJ, Falvo MJ, et al. Effect of a liquid multivitamin/mineral supplement on anaerobic exercise performance. Res Sports Med. 2006;14:53-64.
171 Galloway SD, Tremblay MS, Sexsmith JR, Roberts CJ. The effects of acute phosphate supplementation in subjects of different aerobic fitness levels. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1996;72:224-230.
172 Kreider RB, Miller GW, Williams MH, et al. Effects of phosphate loading on oxygen uptake, ventilatory anaerobic threshold, and run performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990;22:250-256.
173 Peveler WW, Bishop PA, Whitehorn EJ. Effects of ribose as an ergogenic aid. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20:519-522.
174 Candow DG, Burke NC, Smith-Palmer T, et al. Effect of whey and soy protein supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006;16:233-244.
175 Cribb PJ, Williams AD, Carey MF, et al. The effect of whey isolate and resistance training on strength, body composition, and plasma glutamine. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006;16:494-509.
176 Wu CL, Williams C. A low glycemic index meal before exercise improves endurance running capacity in men. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006;16:510-527.
177 Earnest CP, Lancaster SL, Rasmussen CJ, et al. Low vs. high glycemic index carbohydrate gel ingestion during simulated 64-km cycling time trial performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18:466-472.
178 Rogerson S, Riches CJ, Jennings C, et al. The effect of five weeks of tribulus terrestris supplementation on muscle strength and body composition during preseason training in elite rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21:348-353.
179 Kulaputana O, Thanakomsirichot S, Anomasiri W. Ginseng supplementation does not change lactate threshold and physical performances in physically active Thai men. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007;90:1172-1179.
180 Martin BR, Davis S, Campbell WW, et al. Exercise and calcium supplementation: effects on calcium homeostasis in sportswomen. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39:1481-1486.
181 Stannard SR, Hawke EJ, Schnell N. The effect of galactose supplementation on endurance cycling performance. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct 10. [Epub ahead of print]
182 Igwebuike A, Irving BA, Bigelow ML, et al. Lack of DHEA effect on a combined endurance and resistance exercise program in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Nov 20. [Epub ahead of print]
183 Roberts MD, Iosia M, Kerksick CM, et al. Effects of arachidonic acid supplementation on training adaptations in resistance-trained males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2007 Nov 28.
184 Jager R, Purpura M, Geiss KR, et al. The effect of phosphatidylserine on golf performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2007 Dec 4.
185 Ostojic SM, Azarbayjani MA. The effects of vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation on bioenergetics index. Res Sports Med. 2007;15:249-256.
186 Kendrick IP, Harris RC, Kim HJ, et al. The effects of 10 weeks of resistance training combined with beta-alanine supplementation on whole body strength, force production, muscular endurance and body composition. Amino Acids. 2008 Jan 4.
187 Smith WA, Fry AC, Tschume LC, et al. Effect of glycine propionyl-L-carnitine on aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008;18:19-36.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 08/2013 -
- Update Date: 08/22/2013 -