Principal Proposed Uses
- Infants birth to age 1 year: 400 IU
- 1-70 years: 600 IU
- 70 years and older: 800 IU
- Pregnant or nursing women: 600 IU
What Is the Scientific Evidence for Vitamin D?
- Infants 0-6 months: 1,000 IU
- Infants 6-12 months: 1,500 IU
- 1-3 years old: 2,500 IU
- 4-8 years old: 3,000 IU
- 9 years and older: 4,000 IU
- Pregnant or nursing women: 4,000 IU
Interactions You Should Know About
- You may need extra vitamin D if you are taking certain drugs, such as:
- If you are taking calcium-channel blockers , do not take high-dose vitamin D (with calcium) except under physician supervision.
- If you are taking thiazide diuretics , do not take calcium and vitamin D supplements unless under a doctor's supervision.
1 Glerup H, Mikkelsen K, Poulsen L, et al. Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited. J Intern Med. 2000;247:260-268.
2 Vieth R. Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:842-856.
3 Moon JC. A brief history of vitamin D toxicity. J Appl Nutr. 1997;49:18-31.
4 Shah M, Salhab N, Patterson D, et al. Nutritional rickets still afflict children in north Texas. Tex Med. 2000;96:64-68.
5 Utiger RD. The need for more vitamin D. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:828-829.
6 Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine: A Sourcebook of Clinical Research. Tarzana, Calif: Third Line Press; 1997:74-75.
7 Gloth FM 3rd, Tobin JD. Vitamin D deficiency in older people. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1995;43:822-828.
8 Fuller KE, Casparian JM. Vitamin D: balancing cutaneous and systematic considerations. South Med J. 2001;94:58-64.
9 Holmes RP, Kummerow FA. The relationship of adequate and excessive intake of vitamin D to health and disease. J Am Coll Nutr. 1983;2:173-199.
10 Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies. 2nd ed. Westport, CT: AVI Publishing Company; 1985:164-166, 249.
11 Roe DA, Campbell TC, eds. Drugs and Nutrients: The Interactive Effects. New York, NY: M Dekker; 1984:505-523.
12 Hodges RE, Adelman RD. Nutrition in Medical Practice. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 1980:323-331.
13 Bengoa JM, Bolt MJ, Rosenberg IH. Hepatic vitamin D 25-hydroxylase inhibition by cimetidine and isoniazid. J Lab Clin Med. 1984;104:546-552.
14 Odes HS, Fraser GM, Krugliak P, et al. Effect of cimetidine on hepatic vitamin D metabolism in humans. Digestion. 1990; 46:61-64.
15 [No authors listed]. Cimetidine inhibits the hepatic hydroxylation of vitamin D. Nutr Rev. 1985;43:184-185.
16 Brodie MJ, Boobis AR, Hillyard CJ, et al. Effect of isoniazid on vitamin D metabolism and hepatic monooxygenase activity. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1981;30:363-367.
17 Hahn TJ, Hendin BA, Scharp CR, et al. Effect of chronic anticonvulsant therapy on serum 25-hydroxycalciferol levels in adults. N Engl J Med. 1972;287:900-904.
18 Jubiz W, Haussler MR, McCain TA, et al. Plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in patients receiving anticonvulsant drugs. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1977;44:617-621.
19 Williams C, Netzloff M, Folkerts L, et al. Vitamin D metabolism and anticonvulsant therapy: effect of sunshine on incidence of osteomalacia. South Med J. 1984;77:834-836, 842.
20 Tomita S, Ohnishi J, Nakano M, et al. The effects of anticonvulsant drugs on vitamin D3-activating cytochrome P-450-linked monooxygenase systems. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1991;39:479-485.
21 Buckley LM, Leib ES, Cartularo KS, et al. Calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation prevents bone loss in the spine secondary to low-dose corticosteroids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Ann Intern Med. 1996;125:961-968.
22 Aarskog D, Aksnes L, Markestad T, et al. Heparin-induced inhibition of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D formation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1984;148:1141-1142.
23 Haram K, Hervig T, Thordarson H, et al. Osteopenia caused by heparin treatment in pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1993;72:674-675.
24 Wise PH, Hall AJ. Heparin-induced osteopenia in pregnancy. Br Med J. 1980;281:110-111.
25 Brodie MJ, Boobis AR, Dollery CT, et al. Rifampicin and vitamin D metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1980;27:810-814.
26 Williams SE, Wardman AG, Taylor GA, et al. Long term study of the effect of rifampicin and isoniazid on vitamin D metabolism. Tubercle. 1985;66:49-54.
27 Perry W, Erooga MA, Brown J, et al. Calcium metabolism during rifampicin and isoniazid therapy for tuberculosis. J R Soc Med. 1982;75:533-536.
28 Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, et al. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:670-676.
29 Dawson-Hughes B, Dallal GE, Krall EA, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on wintertime and overall bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med. 1991;115:505-512.
30 Garland FC, Garland CF, Gorham ED, et al. Geographic variation in breast cancer mortality in the United States: a hypothesis involving exposure to solar radiation. Prev Med. 1990; 19:614-622.
31 Key SW, Marble M. Studies link sun exposure to protection against cancer. Cancer Weekly Plus. 1997 Nov 17:5-6.
32 Martinez ME, Giovannucci EL, Colditz GA, et al. Calcium, vitamin D, and the occurrence of colorectal cancer among women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996;88:1375-1382.
33 Kearney J, Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, et al. Calcium, vitamin D, and dairy foods and the occurrence of colon cancer in men. Am J Epidemiol. 1996;143:907-917.
34 James SY, Mackay AG, Colston KW. Effects of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analogues on induction of apoptosis in breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1996;58:395-401.
35 Taylor JA, Hirvonen A, Watson M, et al. Association of prostate cancer with vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism. Cancer Res. 1996;56:4108-4110.
36 Douglas WC. Vitamin D scores again. Second Opinion. 1997;7:4-5.
37 Fuller KE, Casparian JM. Vitamin D: balancing cutaneous and systematic considerations. South Med J. 2001;94:58-64.
38 Gilchrest BA, Eller MS, Geller AC, et al. The pathogenesis of melanoma induced by ultraviolet radiation. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:1341-1348.
39 Studzinski GP, Moore DC. Sunlight—can it prevent as well as cause cancer? Cancer Res. 1995;55:4014-4022.
40 Blutt SE, Weigel NL. Vitamin D and prostate cancer. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1999;221:89-98.
41 Vandewalle B, Hornez L, Wattez N, et al. Vitamin-D3 derivatives and breast-tumor cell growth: effect on intracellular calcium and apoptosis. Int J Cancer. 1995;61:806-811.
42 Hofer H, Ho GM, Peterlik M, et al. Biological effects of 1alpha-hydroxy- and 1beta-(hydroxymethyl)-vitamin D compounds relevant for potential colorectal cancer therapy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999;291:450-455.
43 Tong WM, Kallay E, Hofer H, et al. Growth regulation of human colon cancer cells by epidermal growth factor and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is mediated by mutual modulation of receptor expression. Eur J Cancer. 1998;34:2119-2125.
44 Ekman P. Genetic and environmental factors in prostate cancer genesis: identifying high-risk cohorts. Eur Urol. 1999;35:362-369.
45 Peehl DM. Vitamin D and prostate cancer risk. Eur Urol. 1999;35:392-394.
46 Hanchette CL, Schwartz GG. Geographic patterns of prostate cancer mortality. Evidence for a protective effect of ultraviolet radiation. Cancer . 1992;70:2861-2869.
47 Moffatt KA, Johannes WU, Miller GJ. 1Alpha,25dihydroxyvitamin D3 and platinum drugs act synergistically to inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cell lines. Clin Cancer Res. 1999;5:695-703.
48 Danielsson C, Torma H, Vahlquist A, et al. Positive and negative interaction of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and the retinoid CD437 in the induction of human melanoma cell apoptosis. Int J Cancer. 1999;81:467-470.
49 Evans SR, Houghton AM, Schumaker L, et al. Vitamin D receptor and growth inhibition by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in human malignant melanoma cell lines. J Surg Res. 1996;61:127-133.
50 Rostand SG. Ultraviolet light may contribute to geographic and racial blood pressure differences. Hypertension. 1997;30(2 pt 1):150-156.
51 Scragg R. Sunlight, vitamin D, and cardiovascular disease. In: Crass MF II, Avioli LV, eds. Calcium Regulating Hormones and Cardiovascular Function. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1995:213-237.
52 O'Connell TD, Simpson RU. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and cardiac muscle structure and function. In: Crass MF II, Avioli LV, eds. Calcium-Regulating Hormones and Cardiovascular Function. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1995:191-211.
53 Fuller KE, Casparian JM. Vitamin D: balancing cutaneous and systematic considerations. South Med J. 2001;94:58-64.
54 Thys-Jacobs S, Donovan D, Papadopoulos A, et al. Vitamin D and calcium dysregulation in the polycystic ovarian syndrome. Steroids. 1999;64:430-435.
55 Kragballe K. Vitamin D3 analogues in psoriasis. Dermatologica. 1990;180:110-111.
56 LeBoff MS, Kohlmeier L, Hurwitz S, et al. Occult vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal US women with acute hip fracture. JAMA. 1999;281:1505-1511.
57 Mezquita-Raya P, Munoz-Torres M, De Dios Luna J, et al. Relation between vitamin D insufficiency, bone density, and bone metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res. 2001;16:1408-1415.
58 Sato Y, Asoh T, Kondo I, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and risk of hip fractures among disabled elderly stroke patients. Stroke. 2001;32:1673-1677.
59 Lips P, Graafmans WC, Ooms ME, et al. Vitamin D supplementation and fracture incidence in elderly persons. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ann Intern Med. 1996;124:400-406.
60 Hunter D, Major P, Arden N, et al. A randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on preventing postmenopausal bone loss and modifying bone metabolism using identical twin pairs. J Bone Miner Res. 2000;15:2276-2283.
61 Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, et al. Effect of withdrawal of calcium and vitamin D supplements on bone mass in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:745-750.
62 Dawson-Hughes B, Dallal GE, Krall EA, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on wintertime and overall bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med. 1991;115:505-512.
63 Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, et al. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:670-676.
64 Homik J, Suarez-Almazor ME, Shea B, et al. Calcium and vitamin D for corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;2:CD000952.
65 Buckley LM, Leib ES, Cartularo KS, et al. Calcium and vitamin D 3 supplementation prevents bone loss in the spine secondary to low-dose corticosteroids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1996;125:961-968.
66 Vieth R. Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:842-856.
67 Moon JC. A brief history of vitamin D toxicity. J Appl Nutr. 1997;49:18-31.
68 Vieth R, Chan PC, MacFarlane GD. Efficacy and safety of vitamin D(3) intake exceeding the lowest observed adverse effect level. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73:288-294.
69 Bar-Or D, Gasiel Y. Calcium and calciferol antagonise effect of verapamil in atrial fibrillation. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1981;282:1585-1586.
70 Riis B, Christiansen C. Actions of thiazide on vitamin D metabolism: a controlled therapeutic trial in normal women early in the postmenopause. Metabolism. 1985;34:421-424.
71 Lemann J, Gray RW, Maierhofer WJ, et al. Hydrochlorothiazide inhibits bone resorption in men despite experimentally elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Kidney Int. 198528:951-958.
72 Crowe M, Wollner L, Griffiths RA. Hypercalcaemia following vitamin D and thiazide therapy in the elderly. Practitioner. 1984;228:312-313.
73 Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride. 1997. National Academies Press website. Available at: http://www.nap.edu . Accessed October 4, 2001.
74 Hypponen E, Laara E, Reunanen A, et al. Intake of vitamin D and risk of type I diabetes: a birth-cohort study. Lancet. 2001;358:1500-1503.
75 The EURODIAB Substudy 2 Study Group. Vitamin D supplement in early childhood and risk for Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 1999;42:51-54.
76 Stene LC, Ulriksen J, Magnus P, et al. Use of cod liver oil during pregnancy associated with lower risk of Type I diabetes in the offspring. Diabetologia. 2000;43:1093-1098.
77 Pfeifer M, Begerow B, Minne H, et al. Effects of a short-term vitamin D and calcium supplementation on body sway and secondary hyperparathyroidism in elderly women. J Bone Miner Res. 2000;15:1113-1118.
78 Janssen HC, Samson MM, Verhaar HJ. Vitamin D deficiency, muscle function, and falls in elderly people. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75:611-615.
79 Lansdowne AT, Provost SC. Vitamin D3 enhances mood in healthy subjects during winter. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998;135:319-323.
80 Schou AJ, Heuck C, Wolthers OD. A randomized, controlled lower leg growth study of vitamin D supplementation to healthy children during the winter season. Ann Hum Biol. 2003;30:214-219.
81 Trivedi DP, Doll R, Khaw KT. Effect of four monthly oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation on fractures and mortality in men and women living in the community: randomised double blind controlled trial. BMJ. 2003;326:469.
82 Bischoff HA, Stahelin HB, Dick W, et al. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls: a randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2003;18:343-351.
83 Latham NK, Anderson CS, Lee A, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of quadriceps resistance exercise and vitamin D in frail older people: the frailty interventions trial in elderly subjects (FITNESS). J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51:291-299.
84 Grau MV, Baron JA, Sandler RS, et al. Vitamin D, calcium supplementation, and colorectal adenomas: results of a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003; 95:1765-1771.
85 Harwood RH, Sahota O, Gaynor K, et al. A randomised, controlled comparison of different calcium and vitamin D supplementation regimens in elderly women after hip fracture: The Nottingham Neck of Femur (NONOF) Study. Age Ageing. 2004;33:45-51.
86 Kenny AM, Biskup B, Robbins B, et al. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on strength, physical function, and health perception in older, community-dwelling men. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51:1762-1767.
87 Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Willett WC, et al. Effect of vitamin D on falls: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2004;291:1999-2006.
88 Doetsch AM, Faber J, Lynnerup N, et al. The effect of calcium and vitamin D(3) supplementation on the healing of the proximal humerus fracture: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Calcif Tissue Int. 2004 May 27. [Epub ahead of print]
89 Duplessis CA, Harris EB, Watenpaugh DE, et al. Vitamin D supplementation in underway submariners. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2005;76:569-575.
90 Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Rimm EB, et al. Prospective study of predictors of vitamin D status and cancer incidence and mortality in men. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006;98:451-459.
91 Dumville JC, Miles JN, Porthouse J, et al. Can vitamin D supplementation prevent winter-time blues? A randomised trial among older women. J Nutr Health Aging. 2006;10:151-153.
92 Partonen T, Vakkuri O, Lamberg-Allardt C, Lonnqvist J. Effects of bright light on sleepiness, melatonin, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) in winter seasonal affective disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 1996;39:865-872.
93 Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Conzelmann M, Stahelin HB, et al. Is fall prevention by vitamin D mediated by a change in postural or dynamic balance? Osteoporos Int. 2006 Mar 1. [Epub ahead of print]
94 Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Orav EJ, Dawson-Hughes B, et al. Effect of cholecalciferol plus calcium on falling in ambulatory older men and women: a 3-year randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:424-430.
95 Sato Y, Iwamoto J, Kanoko T, et al. Low-Dose Vitamin D Prevents Muscular Atrophy and Reduces Falls and Hip Fractures in Women after Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2005 Jul 27. [Epub ahead of print].
96 Law M, Withers H, Morris J, et al. Vitamin D supplementation and the prevention of fractures and falls: results of a randomised trial in elderly people in residential accommodation. Age Ageing. 2006 Apr 26. [Epub ahead of print]
97 Bunout D, Barrera G, Leiva L, et al. Effects of vitamin D supplementation and exercise training on physical performance in Chilean vitamin D deficient elderly subjects. Exp Gerontol. 2006 Jun 21 [Epub ahead of print]
98 Hypponen E, Power C. Vitamin D Status and Glucose Homeostasis in the 1958 British Birth Cohort: The role of obesity. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:2244-2246.
99 Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B. Where do we stand on vitamin D? Bone. 2007 Mar 24. [Epub ahead of print]
100 Lyons RA, Johansen A, Brophy S, et al. Preventing fractures among older people living in institutional care: a pragmatic randomised double blind placebo controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation. Osteoporos Int. 2007;18:811-818.
101 Klontz KC, Acheson DW. Dietary supplement induced vitamin D intoxication. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:308-309.
102 Autier P, Gandini S. Vitamin D supplementation and total mortality: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:1730-1737.
103 Fosnight SM, Zafirau WJ, Hazelett SE. Vitamin d supplementation to prevent falls in the elderly: evidence and practical considerations. Pharmacotherapy. 2008;28:225-234.
104 Pfeifer M, Begerow B, Minne HW, et al. Effects of a long-term vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls and parameters of muscle function in community-dwelling older individuals. Osteoporos Int. 2008 Jul 16.
105 Wei MY, Garland CF, Gorham ED, et al. Vitamin D and prevention of colorectal adenoma: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:2958-2969.
106 Chlebowski RT, Johnson KC, Kooperberg C, et al. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100:1581-1591.
107 Margolis KL, Ray RM, Van Horn L, et al. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Trial. Hypertension. 2008 Nov;52(5):847-55.
108 Report brief: dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Institute of Medicine website. Available at: http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2010/Dietary-Reference-Intakes-for-Calcium-and-Vitamin-D/Report-Brief.aspx?page=1 . Published November 30, 2010. Accessed December 14, 2010.
109 Bjelakovic G, Gluud LL, Nikolova D, et al. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of mortality in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(7):CD007470.
110 Laaksi I, Ruohola JP, Mattila V, Auvinen A, Ylikomi T, Pihlajamäki H. Vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of acute respiratory tract infection: a randomized, double-blinded trial among young Finnish men. J Infect Dis. 2010;202(5):809-814.
111 Murad MH, Elamin KB, Abu Elnour NO, et al. Clinical review: The effect of vitamin D on falls: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(10):2997-3006.
112 George PS, Pearson ER, Witham MD. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycaemic control and insulin resistance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabet Med . 201229(8):e142-e150.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 09/2014 -
- Update Date: 09/18/2014 -