(Primary Sjogren's Syndrome; Secondary Sjogren's Syndrome)
- Primary Sjogren's syndrome—occurs alone
- Secondary Sjogren's syndrome—occurs with other rheumatic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis , scleroderma , or lupus
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- Viral infections
- Environmental factors
- Sex: female
- Age: 40-60 years old
- Other rheumatic or autoimmune diseases
- Certain gene markers
- Red, burning, itching, and/or dry eyes
- Dry mouth
- Difficulty swallowing
- Loss of taste and smell
- Dry skin, nose, throat, and/or lungs
- Swollen salivary glands
- Severe dental cavities caused by dry mouth
- Oral yeast infections
- Vaginal dryness
- Skin rashes
- Joint pain, swelling and stiffness
- Muscle pain
- Blood vessels
- The nervous system
- Organs such as the lungs, liver, pancreas, kidneys, and thyroid
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- Lip biopsy
- Schirmer test
- Slit-lap examination
- Artificial tears, artificial saliva, and vaginal lubricants
- Pilocarpine—ocular and oral dryness
- Cevimeline—requires less frequent dosing than pilocarpine, may cause nausea
- Aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
- Plaquenil—antimalarial drug with anti-inflammatory properties
- Methotrexate—a steroid-sparing agent
- Mild exercise can help relieve stiffness in the joints.
- To help relieve dry mouth, sip liquids often and suck on sugar-free candies.
- Brush, floss, and see your dentist regularly. This can help to prevent cavities.
- Use unscented moisturizers to help relieve dry skin.
American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association, Inc. http://www.aarda.org
Sjogren's Syndrome Foundation http://www.sjogrens.org
Fox RI. Sjogren’s syndrome. Lancet. 2005;366:321-331.
Kassan SS, Montsopolous HM. Clinical manifestations of Sjogren’s disease. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:1275-1284.
Papas, et al. Successful treatment of dry mouth and dry eye symptoms in Sjogren's syndrome patients with oral pilocarpine: a randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-adjustment study. J Clin Rheumatol. 2004;10:169-177.
Pertovaara M, Korpela M, Uusitalo H, et al. Clinical follow up study of 87 patients with sicca symptoms (dryness of eyes or mouth, or both). Ann Rheum Dis. 1999; 58:423.
Ramos-Casals M, Tzioufas AG, Font J. Primary Sjögren's syndrome: new clinical and therapeutic concepts. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005; 64:347.
Sjogren's syndrome. American College of Rheumatology website. Available at: http://www.rheumatology.org/Practice/Clinical/Patients/Diseases%5FAnd%5FConditions/Sj%C3%B6gren%5Fs%5FSyndrome/ . Updated July 2012. Accessed August 15, 2013.
Venables PJ. Management of patients presenting with Sjogren's syndrome. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2006;20:791-807.
What you need to know about Sjogren's syndrome. Cleveland Clinic website. Available at: http://www.clevelandclinic.org/health/health-info/docs/0200/0220.asp . Accessed August 15, 2013.
- Reviewer: Rosalyn Carson-DeWitt, MD; Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 08/2013 -
- Update Date: 05/11/2013 -